tives. Of these pregnancies, 60 were terminated in abortion, yielding an abortion rate of 203 per 1,000 pregnancies. The Latin American Center of Demography (CELADE) conducted fertility surveys (40) in 1964 to compare the prevalence of abortion, contraception effectiveness, pregnancy rates, and family size among ever-married women in several Latin American cities. The surveys yield further evidence that induced abortion is a popular method for achieving and maintaining a small family size. As indicated by the findings presented in Table 8, the abortion rate per 1,000 pregnant women is highest in cities where the average family size is low and where the percentage of contraceptive users is relatively high. Stressing motivation to limit family size as the crucial underlying factor of both contraceptive use and abortion practice, Requena maintained that the highly motivated women practice contraception and, when this fails, induce abortion. TABLE 8 Fertility, Contraception, and Abortion Characteristics of Ever-Married Women in Latin American Capitals, 1964 Pregnancy Abortion Average Rate Rate per Live Births Number Level of per 1,000 1,000 per 1,000 Children Contraceptive Woman- Pregnant Woman- City per Woman Effectivenessa Years Women Years Mexico City 3.27 13.75 237 155 201 Bogota 3.16 21.80 226 117 200 San Josd 2.98 27.15 207 161 173 Caracas 2.97 27.40 207 163 173 Panama 2.74 - 186 211 162 Rio de Janeiro 2.25 - 147 141 126 Buenos Aires 1.49 41.75 84 246 63 aLevel of contraceptive effectiveness was computed by adding the percent of women using effective contraceptives in each city and the percent who used ineffective contraceptives multiplied by 0.50. Source: (40, Table 1, p. 790). THE CONSEQUENCES OF SUPPRESSING ABORTION If resort to induced abortion on a large scale is forcibly suppressed and there are no highly effective contraceptive programs to compensate, the transition from high to low fertility will be retarded. Individuals may nevertheless choose to practice provoked abortion outside the law and under unsanitary conditions, with many attendant risks to maternal health and family2.8 to 5.6. The average differ-e between actual and desired family size for the eight areas investigated was 1.2;cent of the sample explained that the ideal family size had been reached; only 12.7 percent gave illness as the reasononomic, and demographic changes gains momentum. In societies in which modernization factors have intensified desires to limit family size, while the availability and acceptance of effective contraceptive methods are limited, there are numerous implications for induced abortion.